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  • AVI
    Audio Video Interleaved - A multimedia file format for storing sound and moving pictures in RIFF format developed by Microsoft. An AVI file can use different codecs and formats so there is no set format for an AVI file unlike for example standard VCD video which sets a standard for resolution, bitrates, and codecs used.
  • MPEG-1
    An ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardization/ International Electrotechnical Commission) standard for medium quality and medium bitrate video and audio compression. It allows video to be compressed by the ratios in the range of 50:1 to 100:1, depending on image sequence type and desired quality. The encoded data rate is targeted at 1.5Mb/s - this was a reasonable transfer rate of a double-speed CD-ROM player (including audio and video). VHS-quality playback is expected from this level of compression. The Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) also established the MPEG-2 standard for high-quality video playback at a higher data rates. MPEG-1 is used in encoding video for VCD.


  • MPEG-2
    An encoding standard designed as an extension of the MPEG-1 international standard for digital compression of audio and video signals. MPEG-1 was designed to code progressively scanned video at bit rates up to about 1.5 Mbit/s for applications such as CD-i. MPEG-2 is directed at broadcast formats at higher data rates; it provides increased support for efficiently coding interlaced video, supports a wide range of bit rates and provides for multichannel surround sound coding such as PCM, Dolby Digital, DTS and MPEG audio.
  • MPEG / VCD / SVCD/ DVD
    MPEG is the dominant file format used to create VCD, SVCD and DVD. This high quality compressed format can be used across all platforms. VCD, SVCD and DVDs accept MPEG files that conform to their respective standards. MPEG files differ in many parameters that characterizes the MPEG format.

    The table below lists down the format in which MPEG files are made by Video Workshop depending on the type of video disc.

    Video Disc MPEG Format (Standard)
    Disc Format Picture Standard Disc Type MPEG Type Dimension (pixels) Frame Rate (FPS) Video Bitrate (Kbps) Audio Bitrate (Kbps)
    VCD NTSC CD MPEG 1 352 x 240 29.97 1152 224
    VCD PAL CD MPEG 1 352 x 288 25 1152 224
    SVCD NTSC CD MPEG 2 480 x 480 29.97 2500 192
    SVCD PAL CD MPEG 2 480 x 576 25 2500 192
    DVD NTSC DVD MPEG 2 720 x 480 29.97 6000 224
    DVD PAL DVD MPEG 2 720 x 576 25 6000 224

 

  • NTSC
    Abbreviation of National Television Standards Committee. The NTSC is responsible for setting television and video standards in the United States (in Europe and other parts of the world, the dominant television standards are PAL and SECAM). The NTSC standard for television defines a composite video signal with a refresh rate of 60 fields (half-frames interlaced) per second. Each frame contains 525 lines and can contain 16 million different colors. The resolution of an NTSC VCD is 352x240 pixels, an NTSC SVCD is 480x480, and an NTSC full D1 DVD is 704 or 720 x 480.
  • PAL
    Short for Phase Alternating Line, the dominant television standard in Europe. The United States uses a different standard, NTSC. PAL delivers 625 lines at 50 fields (half-frames interlaced) per second. The resolution of a PAL VCD is 352x288 pixels, a PAL SVCD is 480x576, and a PAL full D1 DVD is 704 or 720 x 576.
  • ASF
    Advanced Streaming Format (ASF): This file format stores audio and video information, and it is specially designed to run on networks like the Internet. This file format is a highly flexible and compressed format that contains streaming audio, video, slide shows, and synchronized events. When you use .asf files, content is delivered to you as a continuous flow of data. You no longer have to wait for your audio and video files to fully download before you start to view them. When an AVI file is compressed and converted to an .asf file, the file begins playing after only a few seconds. The file can be unlimited in length and can run over Internet bandwidths.
  • MOV,QT (Quick Time)
    A digital video Format standard developed by Apple Computer for Macintosh (Mac OS) and Windows operating systems.
  • RM
    Real Media streaming format for audio/video data.
  • MP4
    A container format allows you to combine different multimedia streams (most of the time audio and video) into one single file.
    Multimedia containers are for example the well known AVI (.avi), MPEG (.mpg, .mpeg), Matroska (.mkv, .mka), OGM (.ogm), Quicktime (.mov) or Realmedia (.rm, .rmvb)

    MP4 is the global file extension for the official container format defined in the MPEG-4 standard (ISO 14496-14)
    MP4 is streamable and supports all kinds of multimedia content (multiple audio-, video-, subtitlestreams, pictures, variable-framerates, -bitrates, -samplerates...) and advanced content (officially called "Rich Media" or "BIFS") like 2D and 3D animated graphics, user interactivity, DVD-like menus... - next to nothing handled by the often used AVI

 

  • PSP MP4
    A file format developed for PlayStation Portable (PSP).

 

  • iPod MP4
    A file format developed for iPod video.

 

  • 3GP
    The mpeg4 based video format used in mobile terminals, like cell phones.
    Cellular Phone Model Video Output Audio Output
    Sony Ericsson W800i Bit rate: 500kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144 pixel
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono
    Sony Ericsson K750i Bit rate: 104kbps
    Format: mpeg4
    Size: 176x144 pixel
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: mpeg4aac
    Sample rate: 22050Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Nokia 6230

    Bit rate: 118kbps
    Format: mpeg4
    Size: 128x96
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Nokia 6620

    Bit rate: 79kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Nokia 6630

    Bit rate: 138kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Motorola V710

    Bit rate: 78kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Motorola V635

    Bit rate: 216kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Motorola V547

    Bit rate: 122kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Samsung D. 500

    Bit rate: 73kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

    Sanyo 5600

    Bit rate: 96kbps
    Format: h263
    Size: 176x144
    Frame rate: 25.00fps
    Format: amr_nb
    Sample rate: 8000Hz
    Channels: Mono

 

  • Flash Video (FLV)
    SWF is not the only Flash format. FLV files (Flash Video Files) are a binary file format that delivers "bitmapped" video, limited to one video and one audio stream per file, over the Internet to the Macromedia Flash Player version 7. FLV content may also be associated with SWF files by ActionScript external references. FLV format can also imported into Macromedia Flash Authoring tool.
    Unlike SWF format, FLV do not have maximum of 16000 frames limitation and ideally for large video file size.

 

  • Frame
    Television:
    A set of scanlines in video to make a complete picture. If the video is interlaced the frame consists of both of the interlaced fields (half frames). If the video is progressive the the frame is made up of one continuous scan from top to bottom. The number of scanlines vary in a frame depending on the TV system used. PAL50 uses 625 scan lines, NTSC60 (US) 525.

    Video Encoding:
    A frame is one picture but depending on the encoding scheme it may not be a complete picture (I-Frame) but dependent on frames before or after the current frame (P-Frame, B-Frame).

  • MP3
    MP3 is an acronym for MPEG-1 (or MPEG-2) Layer 3 audio encoding (it is not an acronym for MPEG3). MP3 is a popular compression format used for audio files on computers and portable devices.

    The compression in MP3 works on the basis of a "psychoacoustic model" which means that parts of the audio that human ears cannot detect are discarded by the encoder. Although this is a LOSSY process, it can yield very high quality audio files are relatively high compression rates.

    A typical MP3 file encoded at 128 kbit/s (12:1 compression) is near CD quality.
  • Wave
    Wave is the standard form for uncompressed audio on a PC. Since a wave file is uncompressed data - as close a copy to the original analog data as possible - it is therefore much larger than the same file would be in a compressed format such as mp3 or RealAudio. Audio CDs store their audio in, essentially, the wave format. Your audio will need to be in this format in order to be edited using a wave editor, or burned to an audio CD that will play in your home stereo.
  • Sample Rate
    The sample rate of an audio recording partially determines the overall sound quality. In the recording process, audio samples are saved to memory or disk; the rate each sample of audio input is recorded per second is the sample rate. The sample rate is measured in Hertz (Hz - cycles per second) and Kilohertz (kHz - thousand cycles per second).

    CD quality audio has a sample rate of 44100Hz, 16-bit (resolution) and stereo (channels). The most common sample rates are 11, 22 and 44kHz, with most recording software supporting sample rates from 6kHz up to 192kHz. Like early footage filmed at a low frame rate looks flickered and robotic, the quality of an audio recording decreases as the sample rate is lowered. For audio recordings destined to be encoded to MP3, 22kHz is considered acceptable.

  • Bit Rate
    Bit rate is the amount of information (bits) transferred in a second ('bps' is the abbreviation of bits-per-second). Bitrate or Bit Rate is the average number of bits that one second of video or audio data will consume. Higher bitrate means bigger file size and generally better video or audio quality while lower bitrate means lower file size but worse video or audio quality. Some bitrate examples in common video and audio files:
    MP3 about 128 kbps (kilobits per second)
    VCD about 1374 kbps
    DVD about 4500 kbps
    DV about 25 Mbps (megabits per second).
  • bps
    Bits per second. A unit of data rate
  • fps
    Frames per second. A measure of the rate at which pictures are shown for a motion video image. In NTSC and PAL video, each frame is made up of two interlaced fields.

  • Codec
    An acronym for "compression/deccompression", a codec is an algorithm or specialized computer program that encodes or reduces the number of bytes consumed by large files and programs. Files encoded with a specific codec require the same codec for decoding. Some codecs you may encounter in computer video production are Divx, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, Xivd, DV type 1 and type 2 for video and MP3 for audio.

 

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